Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - a nucleoside triphosphate used in all microbial, plant and animal cells as a coenzyme. ATP concentration is a sensitive indicator of the hygiene level in food manufacturing environment. The principle of the bioluminescence of luciferin and luciferase is applied to measure ATP concentration. ATP concentration is one of the key HACCP parameters. The results of ATP concentration measurement is of low reproducibility due to three molecular type of the biochemical reaction involved.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) - an enzyme normally present in raw milk and it is inactivated in conditions of heat treatment. ALP test in pasteurized milk is used to verify if the heating process of pasteurization is done correctly.
Bacteria – are microscopic living organisms, usually one-celled, that can be found everywhere. They can be dangerous, such as when they cause infection, or beneficial, as in the process of fermentation (such as yogurt) .
Biotechnology - the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or their derivatives to make or modify products or processes for specific use. In fact any manufacture based on a biological process can be regarded as biotechnological.
Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law which is applied to carry out quantitative analysis in photometry.
CFU – colony forming unitsFTU – formazin turbidity units
Fluorescence - the light given off by certain substances when it absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation. First the substance absorbs the energy, then it emits light. When the light source is removed, the fluorescence stops occurring. It is a form of luminescence.
Fluorescent probe (tag, label). A molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. Ethidium bromide, fluorescein and green fluorescent protein are common tags.
Fluorogenic substrate. A nonfluorescent material that is acted upon by an enzyme or microorganism to produce a fluorescent compound.
HACCP (Hazard analysis and critical control points) - a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level.
Inhibition - the slowing or prevention of biological process or function by a particular substance or environmental factors.
Luminescence - the emission of light by a substance that has not been heated.
Luminometer - a highly sensitive instrument that is used to measure light intensity and optical properties that appear on different surfaces. This instrument measure lights such as luminescence, fluorescence, light reflection, light scattering and light absorption in units determined by an instrument manufacturer.
Lumenometr – a highly sensitive instrument for light intensity measurement in Lumen units (International System of Units, SI).
Luxmeter - an instrument for illumination intensity measurement in Lux units.
Mycelium – the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments. In most cases mycelium grows inside a substrate but sometimes is is found on its surface. Mucelium absorbs nutriets from the substrate by osmotic response.
Microbiology - the branch of science that deals with microorganisms.
Mycology - the scientific study of fungi.
Pasteurization - a process of partial sterilization, especially one involving heat treatment of a product at 60°C for 60 min or at 70-80°C for 30 min to make the product safe for consumption and improving its keeping quality.
Mould – a type of fungus. It grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Turbidimetry - the process of measuring the loss of intensity of transmitted light due to the scattering effect of particles suspended in it.
Turbidofluorimetry - the process of measuring of fluorescence in turbid liquids.
UHT (Ultra-high temperature processing) - ultra-heat treatment, or ultra-pasteurization is a food processing technology that sterilizes liquid food by heating it above 135 °C (275 °F) – the temperature required to kill bacterial endospores – for 2 to 5 seconds.
Photometry - a branch of science that deals with measurement of the intensity of light, including its adsorption by dissolved substances
TMC – total microbial count
Yeasts - eukaryotic unicellular microorganisms that reproduce by fission or budding, that are capable of fermenting carbohydrates into alcohol and carbon dioxide
Zymology – a branch of microbiology that studies yeast.